Java vs Python: Which One Will Be More Leveraged in 2024

python vs java

Java and Python are two of the most leveraged development languages programmers use today. Both languages have their gains and limitations and suit diverse technology applications.

As we approach 2024, many developers wonder whether to use Java or Python for their next technology project. This blog post compares Java and Python across several factors like usage in web development, performance, futuristic prospects, and more to help developers decide which programming language may be better suited for their needs.

Java vs Python: Key Statistics

Let us explore the significant metrics and statistics related to Java vs. Python. 

Stack Overflow Developer Survey 202351.52% (↑)32.44% (↓)
SlashData Developer Survey 202245.14% (↑)32.17% (↓) Job Listings205,332 (↑)167,521 (↓)
LinkedIn Job Listings2,648,015 (↑)4,323,580 (↓)
W3Techs Market Share1.2% (↑)5.3% (↓)
Tech Market Share54.87% (↑)24.16% (↓)
GitHub Repositories102.5 million (↑)81.7 million (↑)
Google Search InterestSteady ↑Slight ↓
Average Salary (US)$107,500 (↑)$112,000 (↑)
Learning CurveEasierSteeper but valuable

What is Java?

Java is an open-source, class-based, and object-oriented development language. It is developed to have very few implementation dependencies.

Java’s location independence and inherent security features have made it the backbone of many business systems. Java sees heavy use in domains like big data, cloud platforms, DevOps automation tools, quantitative modeling, and more. Major companies using Java at scale include Twitter, Netflix, Uber, Amazon, Spotify, and eBay. Java software development companies are instrumental in maximizing this language’s capabilities for many impactful applications through their expertise and innovative solutions.

What is Python?

First released in 1991 by developer Guido Van Rossum, Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. It is open source and emphasizes code readability through significant whitespace. Python has easy syntax rules and uses English keywords, making Python code very intuitive and, thus, easy to learn. 

Python’s extensive library and ecosystem of frameworks is a major reason for its popularity. It best suits data analysis, machine learning, web development, and technology automation. 

Python is highly used in data science, computational finance, game development, IoT, robotics, etc. Prominent companies use Python. This list includes Google, Facebook, NASA, CERN, Mozilla, Quora, IBM, Amazon, Microsoft, and Spotify. When embarking on Python-based projects, consider the option to hire Python developers. These skilled professionals contribute to the language’s success by providing expertise and tailored solutions for various projects.

Java vs. Python Applications

Both Java and Python can be used to build scalable web applications. Java has traditionally been more popular for enterprise backends and Python for startups, but the lines are blurring.

Java Web Development

Java is well suited for building large-scale enterprise web applications and microservices. A major benefit Java brings is the Java EE platform of APIs and tools that simplify building robust, secure backends. 

Using Java EE and frameworks like Spring and Hibernate, developers can quickly build web apps while handling concerns like transactions, messaging, persistence and more out of the box. 

This leads to faster development cycles and makes Java a preferred choice for custom web app development shops. Major sites built with Java + Java EE are PayPal, Amazon, and eBay.

Python Web Development

Python, too, can be used to build high-performance web backends using frameworks like Django and Flask. Python requires less code than Java, has extensive libraries for common web tasks, and emphasizes rapid iteration. This makes Python suited for building MVCs and proof-of-concepts quickly during initial startup stages.

Python’s use in web development has grown exponentially thanks to growth in domains like data science and machine learning. All major cloud providers like AWS now offer Python support, enabling Python apps to be hosted on enterprise-grade infrastructure. Prominent sites built with Python include YouTube, SurveyMonkey, PBS, Instagram, and Pinterest.

Both languages have robust web app frameworks suited for different goals. Ultimately, technology choice depends on the existing tech stack, availability of skilled resources, app requirements, and constraints.

Java vs. Python Differences by Functionality 

While direct comparison between languages can be challenging, we can look at some key differences in functionality between Java and Python:

Type Safety: Java is a statically typed language, while Python is dynamically typed. This means Java code must strictly declare a variable and function return types, thereby catching errors during compilation. Python is more flexible, allowing type changes at runtime, but errors may only appear during execution.

Speed: Java code runs faster, given its compilation to intermediate bytecode and just-in-time optimization by the JVM. Python’s dynamic nature causes some overhead, making Java over 2.5x faster per benchmarks. However, intense work on Python interpreters is quickly closing the gap.

Concurrency: Java utilizes a multi-threaded approach that simplifies writing asynchronous, parallel apps. Python originally had a GIL lock, meaning only one thread at a time. However, new advances allow Python to execute async/parallel code efficiently across multiple CPU cores.

Memory Use: Java uses more memory due to JVM overhead. Python has slower startup times but lower overall memory consumption. Libraries like PyPy optimize Python code, leading to 2-4x less memory use.

Both languages continue to evolve rapidly – adding new features, improving integration options, increasing performance and more. Developers skilled in these languages can build robust, scalable apps.

Difference between Python and Java at Performance Levels

Performance is a critical factor when comparing programming languages for app development. Multiple benchmarks reveal differences between Java and Python:


  • Faster runtime performance than Python. Average 2.5x speed advantage per test.
  • Quick startup times under 300 ms on average.
  • Higher memory usage ranging from 2-4x compared to Python.
  • Very consistent, predictable performance metrics.


  • Slower runtime than Java with avg. 10-40x disadvantage as per benchmarks.
  • Slower startup times around 400+ ms on average.
  • Lower memory consumption using 2-4x less memory than Java.
  • Less consistent performance due to flexible syntax and dynamic typing.

However, Python code optimized using PyPy shows Python matching and exceeds Java performance by up to 1.8x per select test.

Ultimately, both languages have reached parity for typical application performance needs with idle CPU usage under 3% and predictable speed and latency. Only truly low-latency systems like HFT may observe differences.

For most apps, developer productivity and app complexity matter more than micro-optimizations. Java and Python provide ample performance for web, mobile, analytics, and AI apps, while Python’s simplicity can decrease overall development time.

Is it Better to Learn Java or Python First?

Python vs. Java: Which Should I Learn? This is a frequent query asked by new-age developers and business analysts, which has powerful opinions on both sides:

For Java:

  • Teaches strong typing and structured programming concepts better.
  • Runs fast and uses fewer cloud infrastructure resources.
  • Has abundant developer jobs with higher average salaries.
  • Leverages reusable code through extensive, mature libraries.
  • Simplifies building robust, complex enterprise applications.

For Python:

  • Very beginner-friendly syntax and gets newbies coding quicker.
  • Offers a perfect environment for interactive coding and precise testing.
  • Reduces development time for most applications substantially.
  • Simple to blend with other languages such as C, Java, and JavaScript.
  • The perfect foundation for trending domains like data science and ML.

In summary, Java may suit systems programmers interested in high-performance apps, and Python offers faster learning for domains requiring automation or analytics. Ultimately, all new developers should be familiar with both languages.

Java vs Python: Which is More Effective for Future

Both Java and Python have promising futures, considering historical trends and uptake in cutting-edge domains. However, there are some key points to consider when evaluating which language has the best future outlook:

  • Python continues its explosive enterprise adoption, entry into new domains like IoT edge computing and growth as #1 AI programming language. Python owes this rise to its simple syntax, drawing new coders and ability to scale performance-wise using frameworks like TensorFlow, PyTorch, Ray, and Dask and libraries like Numba Rust Python. Python growth may eventually taper but remains unmatched.
  • Java maintains steady popularity, powering most Fortune 500s and its status as the #1 backend language. The importance of core Java EE technologies like Spring ecosystem, growing adoption of frameworks like Micronaut, Quarkus for cloud-native development and continued relevance for Big Data/Fast Data analytics ensures ample opportunities. While growth has plateaued, Java remains vital for complex business systems.
  • Developers favor Python as it offers an easier learning curve, enabling a larger qualified talent pool. But Java developers continue earning higher average salaries per PayScale and Indeed surveys, highlighting combined programming/architect level skills.

Overall growth trends and technology usage across industries suggest Python may have the long-term edge. But Java will retain significance owing to its enterprise strength spanning decades. Familiarity with both languages helps maximize career options.

Which has a Better Future – Java or Python?

When we analyze both languages and their future outlook, Python has several advantages over Java:

  1. Python dominates key technology growth areas like machine learning, data science, DevOps and web development, giving it an edge moving forward.
  2. Python’s concise syntax and shallow learning curve allow faster application development times suited for agile environments.
  3. Surveys indicate 2.5x more new programmers start with Python over Java, pointing to future dev mindshare.
  4. High-level Python libraries like TensorFlow, OpenCV, NumPy and automation tools like Ansible, Airflow drive Python enterprise adoption.
  5. Python package usage has ballooned across open source and the cloud ecosystem, offering developers abundant ready code.
  6. All major cloud platforms like AWS, Azure, and GCP provide first-class support and managed offerings for Python development.

While Java retains strength powering business systems, Python’s ubiquity across modern software paradigms and popularity with new programmers point to a brighter future.

Why is Java Better than Python?

Despite Python’s meteoric rise and future potential, Java still holds some advantages, making it better suited for certain application types:

  1. Java offers faster runtime performance critical for response times in high-traffic applications.
  2. Strong static typing combined with versatile design patterns makes Java perfect for extremely complex, business logic-heavy systems.
  3. Abundant frameworks like Spring, Quarkus and third-party integrations aid faster enterprise Java development.
  4. Java utilizes multi-threading and immutable objects efficiently for highly parallel applications.
  5. Java code compiled to bytecode has lower production infrastructure costs than Python hosting.
  6. Strict coding discipline enforced by Java results in fewer bugs and more predictable code behavior.
  7. Java offers more career prospects considering high enterprise demand and better average salaries.
  8. Mature Java CI/CD, robust testing, and automation tool set aid specialized development teams to scale.

Thus, Java development continues to be relevant for large, complex lines of business apps, from e-commerce systems to banking platforms.

So, What Should You Choose: Java or Python?

In summary, both Java and Python have carved distinct niches. Python offers simpler initial developer onboarding, faster project prototyping, and a bright future outlook. But Java brings rigor, performance, and an abundance of specialized frameworks tailored for enterprise systems development.
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